The payrolls numbers showed hiring outside of farming of just 142,000 last month, short of a consensus forecast of 203,000, while August figures were revised sharply lower to show only 136,000 jobs were added a month earlier.
Europe's major stock markets, which had been up around 1.5% on the day, fell back into negative territory while futures showed Wall Street would fall around 1% on opening.
That all came at the end of what has already been a wild week for markets due to concerns over China, commodities prices and related stocks like Glencore.
The dollar also fell sharply against all its major peers, down 0.9% on the day against the euro and 0.6% against the yen.
"Aside from the NFP miss, average hourly earnings totally missed expecations," said one trader.
U.S. 10-year Treasury yields fell 10 basis points to 1.94% while 10-year German Bund yields fell to 0.51%, their lowest since June 1.