The silver-pricing method begun during the reign of Queen Victoria ends today in London as the $5 trillion market shifts to a more transparent process and regulators expand scrutiny of how commodity benchmarks are set.
An electronic, auction-based mechanism will replace a ritualized negotiation among a few traders that’s been in place for 117 years. Silver (COMEX:SIU14) becomes the first of the precious-metals markets to ditch a daily “fixing” procedure where dealers agree to a price over the telephone. Revamps also are planned this year for fixings in gold (COMEX:GCQ14), platinum and palladium.
Coeur Mining Inc., the largest U.S. silver producer, says changing an outdated pricing method will enhance confidence in a benchmark used as a reference for trading and valuing holdings. Since the 2008 financial crisis, regulators have uncovered price-rigging in everything from interbank-loan rates to currencies, increasing pressure on tradition-bound commodity markets from gold to oil (NYMEX:CLQ14) to expand transparency.
“Everybody these days is worried that if something isn’t totally transparent that there’s going to be litigation at some stage if somebody’s not happy with it,” said Steve Garwood, a trader at Baird & Co., a precious-metals dealer in London, who first took part in fixings more than 30 years ago.
The demise of the silver fix was set in motion after Deutsche Bank AG said it would no longer participate, as the German company scales back its commodities business. That left only HSBC Holdings Plc and Bank of Nova Scotia to set prices. CME Group Inc. and Thomson Reuters Corp. will run the new, electronic system that will continue to post the rate at noon every weekday. Silver trades in the over-the-counter and futures market throughout most of the day.
Spokesmen for Frankfurt-based Deutsche Bank, Toronto-based Bank of Nova Scotia and London-based HSBC declined to comment.
The three banks set the price yesterday at $19.90 an ounce, up 2.1% for the year, compared with 27 9/16 pennies of old British money in 1897, when fixings started at the London office of Sharps & Wilkins, with former dealers Mocatta & Goldsmid, Pixley & Abell, and Samuel Montagu & Co.
For the first century, those conducting the fixing carried order books to a closed room each weekday at noon, spending about 10 minutes setting a price. The group’s appointed chairman, from one of the banks, adjusts prices to balance buying and selling. From 1999, traders were permitted to check with clients by telephone to change orders before the price was fixed. Metal changes hands at the settled price.
While that method provided a crucial benchmark for mining companies, jewelers and investors for more than a century, economists and academics say the process is susceptible to manipulation and lacks sufficient regulation.
The three banks conducting silver fixings were accused by an investor of manipulating the price of the metal and its derivatives, according to a complaint filed on July 25 in Manhattan. Bank of Nova Scotia said at the time it intends to “vigorously defend” itself against the suit, while HSBC and Deutsche Bank declined to comment.
This year, the U.K.’s Financial Conduct Authority visited member banks involved in the gold fixing and fined Barclays Plc in May after a trader sought to influence the gold fix in 2012. There are 27 lawsuits related to the gold fixing in U.S. federal courts that are in a putative class-action case before U.S. District Court Judge Valerie Caproni in New York.