“To bust a trade in equities it’s relatively straightforward, to bust a trade in options it would take more time,” Howard Tai, a Kansas City, Missouri-based analyst with Aite Group LLC, said in an interview. “You need to look at each one of the factors and then run through a sanity check, and say, ‘Beyond the cash equity price at the time it happened, how did everything else affect it?’”
Investors in China were whipsawed by a computer malfunction last week. State-controlled brokerage Everbright reported a trading loss of 194 million yuan ($32 million) and apologized to investors after errors in order-execution systems on Aug. 16 sparked the biggest intraday swing in China’s benchmark index since 2009. The incident touched off a 53% surge in volume in the Shanghai Composite Index, which jumped from a loss of as much as 1% to a gain of 5.6% in two minutes.
Everbright’s stock plunged by the 10% daily limit yesterday after the China Securities Regulatory Commission banned the brokerage from proprietary trading for three months and started investigating what it described as the first incident of its kind in China. The company said today that it suspended its head of proprietary trading.
At Knight, computers spewed orders onto exchanges on Aug. 1, 2012, that created a more than $450 million loss for the brokerage. The mishap forced the company to near-insolvency before it was acquired by Getco LLC and spurred calls to examine whether increasing automation is damaging markets.
Knight had a $1 billion market value on July 31, 2012, the day before the trading error, according to data compiled by Bloomberg. Its stock fell 33% the next day. Goldman Sachs, which saw its stock rise 0.6% yesterday, has a market capitalization of $75 billion.
Goldman Sachs reported net income of $1.93 billion in the second quarter on a surge in underwriting revenue and gains from the firm’s own investments. In the quarter before its trading mishap, Knight posted net income of $3.3 million.
The SEC proposed rules in March requiring U.S. exchanges and some brokers to conduct coordinated trading tests to show they can recover from disruptions. The mandate, called Regulation Systems Compliance and Integrity, directs exchanges to strengthen their technology and instruct member firms to participate in tests to show they can sustain operations after interruptions.
The proposed rule requires firms to have written policies and procedures to ensure that systems supporting trading, clearing, order-routing and surveillance have sufficient capacity and remain available to their users. The technology must operate as intended, be secure from threats and promote fair and orderly markets. A review must be done at least once a year by objective personnel, the SEC said.
The changes by trading firms, exchanges and regulators are making the industry better at navigating technology mishaps and human errors, said Ben Schwartz of Lightspeed Financial Inc.
The securities industry has “learned from the mistakes we’ve made in the past and tried to grow a technology to simplify a process and grow more consistent,” Schwartz, the Chicago-based chief market strategist at broker Lightspeed Financial, said in a phone interview yesterday. “It’s a positive thing that they react immediately in a timely manner.”
Among yesterday’s canceled trades, 241 September $103 puts on the iShares Russell 2000 Exchange-Traded Fund traded at $1 at 9:32 a.m. New York time, according to data compiled by Bloomberg. That price was down from $3.32 two minutes earlier. At the same time, 1,000 October $90 calls on Johnson & Johnson traded at $1, followed less than 11 minutes later by two contracts at $2.10.
“We’re all working too fast, too thin and we’ve got systems that do things for you,” said Tim Hartzell, who helps manage about $425 million as chief investment officer at Sequent Asset Management in Houston. “You can make so many little errors.”