Risks to the medium-term outlook for price developments remain on the upside. They relate, in particular, to higher than assumed increases in energy prices, not least owing to ongoing political tensions in North Africa and the Middle East. More generally, strong economic growth in emerging markets, supported by ample liquidity at the global level, may further fuel commodity price rises. Moreover, increases in indirect taxes and administered prices may be greater than currently assumed, owing to the need for fiscal consolidation in the coming years. Finally, risks also relate to stronger than expected domestic price pressures in the context of the ongoing recovery in activity.
Turning to the monetary analysis, the annual growth rate of M3 increased to 2.0% in February 2011, from 1.5% in January. Looking through the recent volatility in broad money growth owing to special factors, M3 growth has continued to edge up over recent months. The annual growth rate of loans to the private sector also increased further to 2.6% in February, from 2.4% in the previous month. Hence, the underlying pace of monetary expansion is gradually picking up, but remains moderate. At the same time, monetary liquidity accumulated prior to the period of financial market tensions remains ample and may facilitate the accommodation of price pressures in the euro area.
Looking at M3 components, annual M1 growth moderated further to 2.9% in February 2011, while the growth of other short-term deposits and marketable instruments has increased. This rebalancing within M3 reflects the impact of the recent steepening of the yield curve on the remuneration of different monetary assets. However, this steeper yield curve also implies a dampening impact on overall M3 growth, as it reduces the attractiveness of monetary assets compared with more highly remunerated longer-term instruments outside M3.
On the counterpart side, a further rise in the annual growth rate of bank loans to the private sector in February is due in part to a further slight strengthening in the growth of loans to non-financial corporations, which rose to 0.6% in February, after 0.5% in January. The growth of loans to households was 3.0% in February, compared with 3.1% in January. Overall, in early 2011 the positive flow of lending to the non-financial private sector has become more broadly based across the household and non-financial corporation sectors.
The latest data confirm that banks have expanded their lending to the private sector further, while at the same time the overall size of their balance sheets has remained broadly unchanged. It is important that banks continue to expand the provision of credit to the private sector in an environment of increasing demand. To address this challenge, where necessary, it is essential for banks to retain earnings, to turn to the market to strengthen further their capital bases or to take full advantage of government support measures for recapitalization. In particular, banks that currently have limited access to market financing urgently need to increase their capital and their efficiency.
To sum up, the Governing Council decided to increase the key ECB interest rates by 25 basis points. The adjustment of the current very accommodative monetary policy stance is warranted in the light of upside risks to price stability that we have identified in our economic analysis. A cross-check with the signals from our monetary analysis indicates that while the underlying pace of monetary expansion is still moderate, monetary liquidity remains ample and may facilitate the accommodation of price pressures. All in all, it is essential that the recent price developments do not give rise to broad-based inflationary pressures over the medium term. Our decision will contribute to keeping inflation expectations in the euro area firmly anchored in line with our aim of maintaining inflation rates below, but close to, 2% over the medium term. Such anchoring is a prerequisite for monetary policy to contribute to economic growth in the euro area. At the same time, interest rates across the entire maturity spectrum remain low. Thus, the stance of monetary policy remains accommodative and thereby continues to lend considerable support to economic activity and job creation. Recent economic data confirm that the underlying momentum of economic activity continues to be positive, with uncertainty remaining elevated. We will continue to monitor very closely all developments with respect to upside risks to price stability.